If a croc bite doesn’t get you, infection will



Image 20170419 32700 mceytd
Open wide … the mouths of crocodiles like this contain bacteria that cause potentially lethal infections in people they bite.
from www.shutterstock.com

Simon Smith, James Cook University

Most people assume if you’re unlucky enough to be bitten by a crocodile, then a severed limb or other severe trauma is all you have to worry about. But new research is emerging about serious infections you can catch from a bite that might kill you instead. The Conversation

Our study, published earlier this week, showed the range of bacteria crocodiles can transfer to their human victims. The good news is they can be cured with a much simpler antibiotic treatment than we realised.

Since crocodiles were granted protected species status in the 1970s in Australia, they have attacked more than 100 humans.

For those lucky to survive, their injuries often become infected. Bacteria can enter the body via the deep cuts from a crocodile’s teeth or from wounds occurring when people try to escape.

Bacteria living in crocodiles’ mouths can come from the intestines of other animals they eat or from the water in which they live.

When people are trying to escape a crocodile attack, bacteria living in the soil and mud also pose a risk. And bacteria commonly living on our skin without causing problems can cause infection when the skin’s protective barrier is lost.

If untreated, bacteria can cause severe wound infections. Without treating these infections properly, the victim’s tissues die and their arms and legs may need to be amputated. Infection can also enter the bloodstream and spread to the rest of the body causing multiple organ failure and death.

How do we treat croc bite infections?

Australian guidelines recommend how to treat infections after bites from animals in general. But until recently we didn’t know much about which antibiotic is best for people who have been attacked by a crocodile.

Crocodiles make the front page across Australia’s Top End.
NT News

Some 25 years ago, a study in the Northern Territory found over half of people who had been attacked by a crocodile had infected wounds.

Researchers found a wide variety of bacteria you would expect to find in the water, the soil, the intestines of animals and on the skin of humans. To kill all of these potential infection causing bacteria, they recommended a complex treatment of four different antibiotics which would mean up to 14 injections a day. With so many antibiotics, this increases the risk of potential side effects and the cost of patient care.

So, we reviewed all cases of people who had been treated for a crocodile attack in Far North Queensland and attended the Cairns Hospital over a 25-year period.

A total of 15 people needed medical attention after a crocodile attack over this time, including several crocodile handlers. Four people were clearly infected by the time they reached hospital. A further two had bacteria in their wounds and almost all needed surgery.

Surgery is essential to prevent new or worsening infection after any bite as surgeons can remove already-infected tissue and help flush out any bacteria hiding in the wounds.

Despite finding lots of different bacteria, we discovered antibiotics given orally (amoxycillin-clavulanate) in mild infections or intravenously (piperacillin-tazobactam) for severe infections would be suitable to kill almost all of the bacteria found after a crocodile attack.

Although all of these patients were treated at Cairns Hospital, the results of the study will likely influence national guidelines for the management of crocodile attacks. The results may even help doctors in other countries.

Prevention is your best bet

Although we did not find it in our study, another important thing to remember is tetanus – an infection that can be contracted through dirty wounds – may also develop after a crocodile attack and this can be prevented by vaccination.

When it comes to crocodile attacks, like most things in health, prevention is better than cure. People should take care when visiting areas where crocodiles live. If people are attacked and lucky enough to survive, they are likely to require surgery and have a high chance of developing an infection.

A crocodile is a beautiful creature to observe from a distance, but in the words of American composer Frank Churchill:

Don’t be taken in by his welcome grin.

Simon Smith, Adjunct Lecturer (Clinical), Medicine, James Cook University

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Australia’s energy debates need to move beyond political tribalism



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AAP/Mick Tsikas

Michael West, University of Sydney

As public angst over the prospective A$1 billion subsidy to coal magnate Guatam Adani hits fever pitch, a small company is modestly beavering away on another – more worthy – energy project in Far North Queensland. The Conversation

Genex Power has turned the abandoned Kidston gold mine into a solar farm and pumped-hydro power storage project. Kidston will deliver 145MWh of renewable energy per year. This is enough to power 26,484 homes. In terms of reducing emissions, this is equivalent to taking 33,000 cars off Australian roads.

Like Adani, the Kidston project also got a leg-up from government. It won a grant of nearly A$9 million from ARENA, the Australian Renewable Energy Agency, and struck a deal with the state of Queensland to sell electricity for 20 years.

Unlike Adani’s Carmichael coal mine, however, the Kidston solar project has bankers and investors. Unlike Adani, whose labyrinthine corporate structure wends its way to the Cayman Islands, Genex is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange, has a market value of A$70 million and is owned by small investors. When it delivers its first power in the next three months, it’s likely to pay tax on its profits.

The furore over Adani has so far centred on the putative subsidy for the rail line to cart the coal from the Galilee Basin to the coast. There is no rail line without a mine, however, and so the bigger question is: who is going to tip in the A$10 billion in project finance to build the mine?

Adani’s bankers have long fled the scene – not just for environmental reasons, but because the business case for building this, the world’s biggest new thermal coal mine, is sketchy.

The global seaborne coal market is in structural decline. There is a glut. Thermal coal futures prices are well below the spot price – and even at present spot prices, this is hardly a viable financial proposition.

Power contract prices for next year are now far higher than the wholesale spot prices during the carbon price period.
Green Energy Markets

So it is that, for many, the Australian government’s stubborn support of the Carmichael mine is beyond comprehension. It defies logic on so many levels: environmental, political and financial.

The word “jobs” is bandied about by the proponents of the project. Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull even claimed Carmichael would create “tens of thousands of jobs”. Adani itself claims 10,000 jobs. Yet the company’s expert witness in the Land Court of Queensland two years ago conceded the real figure was more like 1,464 jobs. Pit-to-port, this is a highly mechanised operation.

The only plausible explanation for the persistent support of the mine by the government is ideology: left versus right, green versus brown.

This syndrome of political tribalism impeding rational decisions is enshrined brilliantly in a report last week by Tristan Edis and Ric Brazzale of Green Energy Markets. Titled “Overcoming ideology to support new power plant investment and reduce power prices”, the authors describe how ideology and “immature, ideological squabbling” had led to the shambles which is Australia’s energy policy.

Average annual price trends indicate that the cost of residential electricity is set to rise between 2016-17 and 2018-19.
AEMC

Australia’s electricity prices are already among the highest in the world and are going higher. Meanwhile, the political tribes are still mired in the debate about whether climate change is real and whether renewables are to blame for blackouts in South Australia.

Edis and Brazzale have a good crack at the Australian Energy Market Commission, Frontier Economics, and other industry lobby groups in their report. They found that whether Australia opted for an emissions intensity trading scheme or an expanded renewable energy target – or even a scheme proposed by News Corp commentator Judith Sloan – didn’t really matter because renewable energy was now cheaper than fossil fuels anyway.

Thanks to spiralling gas prices, the cost of wholesale power on the east coast of Australia hovers above $100 per megawatt hour – whereas the latest round of auctions for solar and wind had been achieving prices of $65.

Edis and Brazzale write:

Our understanding is that developers are capable of financing solar projects today at prices of around $75 to $85/MWh (where a long-term power purchase agreement is in place) and the expectation is that this would decline noticeably over the next ten years. This marks a stark contrast with Frontier’s assessment that costs would not reach $100/MWh for around a decade and not reach $85/MWh until 2040.

Globally, solar auction prices have tumbled from almost $US250MWh to $US50MWh since 2010.

The average prices resulting from international renewable energy auctions from 2010 to 2016.
IRENA

This goes for India too, which is making an aggressive transition to renewable energy and is on track to phase out thermal coal imports by 2020. If, with the help of hapless Australian taxpayers, Adani gets its massive Carmichael coal mine up and running, its first production may be just about the time the last ship carrying thermal coal docks at an Indian port.


This column, co-published by The Conversation with michaelwest.com.au, is part of the Democracy Futures series, a joint global initiative with the Sydney Democracy Network. The project aims to stimulate fresh thinking about the many challenges facing democracies in the 21st century.

Michael West, Adjunct Associate Professor, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Sydney

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.