The winners and losers of Antarctica’s great thaw



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Adélie penguin at the Mt Siple breeding colony, West Antarctica.
Jasmine Lee, Author provided

Jasmine Lee, The University of Queensland; Justine Shaw, The University of Queensland, and Richard Fuller, The University of Queensland

When you think of Antarctica, you probably picture vast, continuous ice sheets and glaciers, with maybe a penguin or two thrown in. Yet most Antarctic plants and animals live in the permanently ice-free areas that cover about 1% of the continent. Our new research predicts that these areas could grow by a quarter during this century, with mixed prospects for the species that currently live there.

Besides everyone’s favourite Emperor and Adélie penguins, terrestrial Antarctic species also include beautiful mosses, lichens, two types of flowering plants, and a suite of hardy invertebrates such as nematodes, springtails, rotifers and tardigrades, many of which are found nowhere else on Earth. Tardigrades – tiny creatures sometimes nicknamed “waterbears” – are so tough they can survive in space.

Antarctica’s ice-free areas are currently limited to a scattering of rocky outcrops along the coastline, or cliff faces, or the tops of mountain ranges. They form small patches of suitable habitat in a huge sea of ice, much like islands.

As a result, the plants and animals that live there are often isolated from each other. But as Antarctica’s climate warms, we expect ice-free areas to get bigger and eventually start joining up. This would create more habitat for native species, but also new opportunities for non-native species to spread.

Our study, published today in Nature, forecasts that climate change will expand Antarctica’s ice-free areas over the course of this century. Under the most severe scenario that we modelled (which is also the one on which the globe is currently tracking), more than 17,000 square km of new ice-free area could emerge across the continent by 2100.

This would increase the current total ice-free area by nearly a quarter. The majority of this new ice-free land will be on the Antarctic Peninsula, which could have three times as much ice-free area as it does today.

Projected Antarctic ice melt this century.
Lee et al. (2017) Nature

Brave new world

As the ice-free areas expand, the distances between them will decrease, giving plants and animals more opportunity to spread through the landscape. On the Antarctic Peninsula, which has already warmed more than anywhere else in Antarctica, many of the ice-free patches will expand so much that they will start joining together.

Will this increase in habitat availability benefit the plants and animals that live there? It will definitely provide new opportunities for some native plants and animals to expand their range and colonise new areas. The warming climate may also give a boost to species that are currently hampered by the lack of warmth, nutrients and water. Some Antarctic mosses, for example, are expected to grow faster as temperatures rise, and Antarctica’s two flowering plant species are already expanding southward.

However, the potential benefits seem likely to be outweighed by the negatives. The joining-up of habitat patches could allow species that have been isolated for much of their evolutionary past to meet suddenly. If the newcomers to a particular area outcompete the native species, then it may lead to localised extinctions. Over the coming centuries this could lead to the loss of many plants and animals, and the homogenisation of Antarctica’s ecosystems.

Antarctic aliens

An even bigger concern is that Antarctica’s great thaw could provide new opportunities for species to invade. Antarctica’s best bulwark against non-native species is its harsh climate and extreme weather, to which native Antarctic species have spent many thousands of years adapting.

A native Frisea springtail.
Melissa Houghton

We already know that many plants and invertebrates are reaching Antarctica, most often in food or cargo shipments. As the climate warms, some of these non-native species may be able to establish themselves on the Antarctic Peninsula, and the increasing connectivity will allow them to easily move through the landscape. Many of these animals and plants may become invasive, competing with the native species for space and resources.

We don’t know how Antarctica’s species will cope with the increasing competition. But if the sub-Antarctic islands provide any indication, the outlook is depressing. Australia’s World Heritage-listed Macquarie Island, for example, was severely impacted by invasive cats, rats, rabbits and mice (although it has since been declared free of these pests after an intensive eradication effort).

Several non-native species have already come to Antarctica, including the invasive annual meadowgrass Poa annua (a common weed around the world), which has colonised newly ice-free areas left behind by retreating glaciers. It is thought to outcompete Antarctica’s native plants, although we don’t yet know what the impact will be on animals.

Invasive meadowgrass on Macquarie Island.
Laura Williams

Humans – both scientists and tourists – are key transporters of non-native species to the continent, and tourist numbers continue to grow (almost 37,000 visited in the 2016-17 summer).

Biosecurity is paramount for the ongoing protection of Antarctica. If bags, shoes, clothes and field equipment are not properly cleaned and inspected before arriving on the continent, then non-native seeds, microbes and insects could be transported to Antarctica and begin to spread.

The ConversationWe call for protection of ice-free areas that will remain intact in a changing climate, and for the Antarctic scientific and tourism communities to pinpoint key areas where greater biosecurity and monitoring for invasive species may be needed.

Jasmine Lee, PhD candidate, biodiversity conservation and climate change, The University of Queensland; Justine Shaw, Conservation Biologist, The University of Queensland, and Richard Fuller, Associate Professor in Biodiversity and Conservation, The University of Queensland

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Shrinking Antarctic glaciers could make Adélie penguins unlikely winners of climate change


Jane Younger, University of Tasmania

Penguin numbers exploded in East Antarctica at the end of the last ice age, according to research published today in BMC Evolutionary Biology. Despite their image as cold-loving creatures, the increase in Adélie penguin numbers seems to be closely linked to shrinking glaciers, raising the possibility the these penguins could be winners from current climate change.

Adélie penguins are one of only two penguin species that live on the Antarctic continent. Their cousins, emperor penguins, may be the movie stars, but it is the Adélies that are the bigger players in the Southern Ocean. They outnumber emperors by more than ten to one, with a population of over 7.5 million breeding adults and counting.

Given the abundance of Adélie penguins and their crucial role in Southern Ocean ecosystems, there has been a great deal of interest in understanding how the species is likely to respond to future climate change.

There are more then 7 million of these guys in Antarctica.
Jane Younger, Author provided

Sensitivity to sea ice

Breeding colonies have been monitored for decades to determine the effects of a changing environment on the penguins. A common finding of many of these studies is that Adélies are highly sensitive to sea ice conditions.

Unlike emperor penguins, Adélies do not nest on the sea ice, but they must cross it to reach their nests on land. As everyone knows, penguins are not the most efficient walkers, and in years with a lot of sea ice their journeys to and from the ocean to feed their chicks can become lengthy. With a longer wait between meals chicks are less likely to survive.

In an extreme case, extensive sea ice at one breeding colony had a devastating impact in 2014, and not a single chick survived.

Based on these observations over years and decades, there has been concern that changing sea ice conditions, including increases in certain parts of Antarctica, could have a serious impact on Adélie penguin numbers in the future.

Short-term vs long-term climate change

However, the climate change that is taking place now is not a decadal trend. Rather, the shrinking glaciers and ice sheets, changing sea ice conditions, and shifting currents and weather patterns represent a global change to a new climate.

We therefore set out to understand how Adélie penguins in East Antarctica were affected by the last big shift to a different climate: the ending of the last ice age.

Following similar methods to our previous study on emperor penguins, we used genetic data to uncover the trend of the Adélie population in East Antarctica over the past 22,000 years.

Researchers have been investigating penguins to see how they might respond to climate change.
Laura Morrissey, Author provided

The end of the ice age

We found that, as for the emperor penguins, Adélies were far less common during the ice age. This is not at all surprising since most of their nesting sites would have been covered with glaciers and their feeding grounds encased in sea ice that never melted.

Following the end of the ice age 20,000 years ago, temperatures increased slowly, and after a few thousand years of warming the glaciers and ice sheets began to shrink. Fast forward to 10,000 years ago and the annual sea ice melting cycle that we see today was established.

Given the sensitivity of Adélie penguins to sea ice changes today, we predicted that Adélie numbers would remain very small until 10,000 years ago when sea ice conditions became similar to what they are now.

However, the penguins surprised us again. We found that the number of Adélies exploded by around 135-fold, but the expansion pre-dated the sea ice change by at least 3000 years.

Penguin numbers exploded at the end of the last ice age.
Jane Younger, Author provided

Shrinking glaciers

The proliferation of Adélie penguins in East Antarctica began during a period of ice sheet and glacier retreat, which would have increased the amount of ice-free ground available for nesting.

A study of Adélie penguins at the Scotia Arc, on the opposite side of the continent, found that numbers in this region rose 17,000 years ago. That expansion was several thousand years before the growth of the East Antarctic population, but coincided with the shrinking of glaciers in the Scotia Arc. This lends further support to our conclusion that it was glacier retreat, rather than changing sea ice conditions, that caused the hike in Adélie penguin numbers after the last ice age.

This is an important finding, as it suggests that the effects of climate change on a species over thousands of years can be quite different to the effects over years or decades. Given the long-term nature of contemporary climate change, we suggest that it is critical to consider millennial-scale trends alongside decadal ecological studies when predicting the effects of climate change on a species.

Could penguins benefit from future climate change?

Glaciers and ice sheets in Antarctica will continue to shrink. As this happens, ground that was previously covered in ice will become suitable for Adélie penguin nesting. In regions with adequate food supplies and where sea ice conditions remain favourable, Adélie penguin numbers may continue to grow.

A recent study using satellite images showed that one breeding colony in the Ross Sea grew by 84% between 1983 and 2010, as a direct result of a glacier shrinking by 543 m and uncovering new nesting sites.

While it seems that East Antarctic Adélie penguins might come out on top as climate change winners, it is important to keep in mind that for penguins to flourish their food supplies must be plentiful enough to meet the demands of a growing population. Whether this will be the case in the future remains to be seen, as Adélie penguin prey species, such as Antarctic krill, are threatened by both climate change and commercial fisheries.

The Conversation

Jane Younger, Postdoctoral research fellow, University of Tasmania

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.